Nearly every state west of the Mississippi has "public land." In some of them, there's more land in the public domain - federally owned - than there is in private hands. In Arizona in particular only about 10 percent of the state is privately owned and therefore taxable by the state. All the rest is various tribal reservations or federally owned - and Arizona is a big state. In Texas there is practically no "public land" outside state and national parks. Why?
The answer lies in how Texas became a state.